نکته مهم : برای دانلود متن کامل فایل پایان نامه ها به سایت sabzfile.com مراجعه نمایید
<![CDATA[ other novel connections at hand. Because all these connections and disconnections are recorded on the full body without organs, Deleuze and Guattari believe this body offers the amalgamation of life and death, in other words on the body without organs death produces life and life in turn produces death.
This chaotic instability of the functionality of machines is the ideal model of becoming. In this regard, the disorganization of one connection and the death of a machinic relation build no sense of a destructive aspect, rather, they can put forward innovative assemblages that are yet untaken. Therefore, becoming is the persistent condition within Beckett’s plays; also it becomes the only solution for Deleuzean belief which is inertia and solidity of being. Beckett’s plays are an anthology of life and death, organization and disorganization which are a representation of the model of life.
In chapter 2, Krapp’s Last Tape is studied in detail. The researcher traces how Krapp enters the world of becoming. Three kinds of becoming are involved here, becoming silence, voice, and tape. Krapp’s obsession with tapes can demonstrate the process of becoming through coming to the world of becoming silence and voice. Also how language gets fragmented in Beckett’s play comes into consideration. In fact, language does not convey any specific meaning and this is revealed in the way Krapp plays with words. Another project that is practiced is representation of smooth space in terms of Deleuzean program. In this play, chaotic world stands for the smooth space where nothing is in the right place and gloomy atmosphere is widwspread. The last tenet applied is BWO, as Deleuze argues for gaining freedom we need to stripe ourselves from body; similar program is seen in this play when Krapp shatters his organs by drinking alcohol and eating banana.
In chapter 3, Not I is discussed and followed in the act of applying Deleuzean tenets. Therefore, the researcher accentuates the structure of language and how non-signifying language operates in this play according to what Deleuze demands. In fact, it points out that no meaning can be gained in the woman’s speech and she is just trying to say some words without conveying any meaning. The next subversive theory that is considered here is negation of ego. As the title of the play indicates, there is no ego in this play and the woman is trying to negate it over and over during different procedures. Becoming is another procedure that is detected, becoming word, silence. These becomings pave the way for smooth space which uncovers that there is no order in this play and chaotic situation is dominant. The last trajectory is BWO where the woman’s body is seen fragmented through her speech. One can witness how Beckett puts his character in the position that just mouth can be seen and this can be the representation of striping her from organs.
In chapter 4, the last and the longest play comes into consideration. To study this play, the researcher tries to focus on language and how the language of the characters can represent Deleuzean projects in the world of regimes of signs. In this chapter, it becomes evident how useless words and long speeches can designate no meaning. Also, this fragmented language paves the way for smooth space and then nomadic characters. As mentioned earlier, this play is resembles Beckett’s other plays where chaotic world can be seen all over the stage. This can suggest how the characters in this atmosphere become nomads living in sheer hopelessness. Both inside and outside are dead and the characters are passing time for nothing. The last program applicable is BWO in which the characters are unable to do their daily activity. For instance, Hamm cannot walk and Clov cannot sit. Also Hamm’s parents are stuck and unable to move or do anything.
On the application of Deleuzean trajectories Samuel Beckett’s plays, many assumptions can be deducted. In this section a record of the most important ones have been listed:
1. The main objective of the plays has been the portrayal of different voids in life. The way these spaces are represented is not aimed at, since Beckett locates them in trivial and day-to-day situations like parties, family struggles and even childish tricks. What intrests us more is the participation of various machines on this space.
2. This participation should be very quick because the main characteristic of these voids is their instability. Machines have to connect quickly and be ready to disconnect as soon as possible.
3. Any hesitation to be part of this flow, or any disinclination to connect and particularly to disconnect may cause disastrous results as inertia and inactivity. Beckett’s characters are trapped in this inertia since they are most notably unable or unwilling for causing any disorganization in the machinic connection they have produced.
4. Disconnection of a certain connection is the death of that connection. Therefore death becomes a path for a new connection; in other words death and life are mutually essential in the process of becoming machine.
5. The tendency to participate in this chaos and to connect to another object in order to create an original organization is called “lines of flight”. This flight and escape is in fact a break from a previous connection.
6. Not every line of flight or deterritorialization can be comfortable and victorious, for example in Not I for example, it is a complete journey.
7. A successful deterritorialization is followed by reterritorialization. According to Guattari and Deleuze a deterritorialization can be an imitation. When Krapp sees the tapes, his desire to be one of them is an imitation. The woman’s passion for the words is also an imitation of desire, but reterritorialization causes this imitation to result in a totally new production. Krapp after experiencing the tapes does not become one of them but a new machine which was produced by connecting to the dead space.
8. In Beckstt’s plays the characters become machines connecting to and disconnecting from other animate or inanimate machines.
9. Identity is gone when there is no ground for it; as a result chaos overcomes order and people are identified through their becomings.
10. No connection ever happens unless one desires this connection therefore all these productive investments are sexual and social.
5.4 Suggestions For Further Reading
In this reading a schizophrenic view of Samuel Beckett’s plays is attempted. But many other approaches can possibly be applied to these plays. In the first hand, one cannot deny the psychoanalytical tune which is in the air and the opportunity for a complete study of Freudian id, ego and superego is still untried. The females of the plays are of such extraordinary potentials that they can convincingly become target of many feminist studies. Moreover, the rise of industrialization, capitalism and popular culture in the U.S. during 1950s facilitates a Cultural Studies. The subject of reality versus fantasy could also be a challenging topic for investigation. And finally, Beckett’s theatre lends itself to a Foucauldian power relations too which in turn leads to a New Historicist analysis availing a New Historicist study of it.
Adorno, Theodor W. ‘Trying to Understand Endgame’. Beckett and Philosophy.
Richard Lane, Ed. New York: Palgrave, 2002. 39-49.
Andonian, Culotta Ed. The Critical Response to Samuel Beckett. London:
Greenwood Press, 1998.
Barthes, Roland. The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies. Trans. Richard Howard. p 5.
Birkett, Jennifer and Kate Ince. Samuel Beckett. London and New York: Longman,
Buning, Marius. Beckett versus Beckett. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998.
Butler, Lance St. John. Samuel Beckett and the Meaning of Being. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1984.
Butler, Lance St. John. Ed. Critical Essays on Samuel Beckett. Aldershot: Scholar
Chambers, Colin. P
laywrights’ Progress: Patterns of Postwar British Drama.
Oxford: Amber Lane Press, 1987.
Colebrook, Claire. Gilles Deleuze. London: Routledge, 2002.
Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari (1). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Scizophrenia. Trans. Brian
Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
— (۲). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Scizophrenia. Trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.
— (۳). What is Philosophy? Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell. New York :
Columbia University Press, 1994.
Deleuze, Gilles (1). Desert Islands and Other Texts 1953-1974. Ed. David Lapoujade. Translated
by Michael Taormina. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2004.
— (۲). Difference and Repetition. Trans. Paul Patton. London: The Athlone Press, 1994.
— (۳). Nietzsche and Philosophy. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson. New York: Continuum, 2002. p 184.
Drabble, Margaret, Ed. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. 6th. Oxford: Oxford University
Faggini, Marisa and Concetto Paolo Vinci, ed. Decision Theory and Choices: A Complexity Approach.
Milan: Springer, 2010.
Fletcher, John and John Spurling. Son of Oedipus: Beckett: A Study of His Plays. London: MacMillan,
Goodchild, Philip. Deleuze and Guattari: An Introduction to the Politics of Desire. London: Sage
Publication, 1996. p 3.
Holland, Eugene. W. Deleuze and Guattari’s Anti-Oedipus: An Introduction to Schizoanalysis. London:
Iser, Wolfgang. ‘Samuel Beckett’s Dramatic Language’, Critical Essays on Samuel Beckett. Lance
Butler, Ed. Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1993.
Iser, Wolfgang. ‘The Art of Failure: The Stifled Laugh in Beckett’s Theater’ in Jennifer Birkett and
Kate Ince, Eds. Samuel Beckett. London and New York: Longman, 2000.
Jarvis, Brian. Postmodern Cartographies: the Geographical Imagination in Contemporary American
Culture. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. pp 51-79.
Jeffers, Jennifer M. Samuel Beckett: A Casebook. New York:]]>