<![CDATA[ has “gnawed her tongue with which to her she can never speak” (23) but later she tears her memory apart to reach that beautiful pain of existence as if she wishes to build a totally new source of unconscious for herself. نکته مهم : برای دانلود متن کامل فایل پایان نامه ها به سایت sabzfile.com مراجعه نمایید
The last significant dictum deployed to finalize the study of Becket’s plays, is Deleuzean becoming, “a revolutionary subversive writing that breaks all classes, regulations, rhetorics, and codes sweeping away the syntax and laws of language; a writing in constant search for love of the other in which not only the differences are not to be denied, but also the other is given a voice in contrast with traditional writing” (DeleuzeI 443-74). According to Deleuze, nothing has ground or home anymore, everything is a constant process of deterriorialisation or becoming other than itself. Thus, this study serves to analyze Becket’s revolutionary style in line with what Deleuze calls becoming. Some of the aspects of his unique style of writing the researcher aims to foreground are hidden under his artistic use of fragmentary, broken language deployed in Not I where anonymous characters bombard the reader’s mind with fragmentary statements coming one after another without even logical sequence.
Although Not I seems to be his most traditionally well-structured play, it makes extensive use of some innovative qualities such as repetitive one-word sentences which are to be highlighted. Accordingly, Becket’s unique representation of short, fragmentary, one-word sentences, numbers, dashes, spaces, and intense use of repetitive words are other programs to be studied in Endgame by means of Deleuzean deconstructive methods concerning unique writing from which other is not excluded. In the end, the researcher plans to finalize the analysis by emphasizing a kind of inhumanity which is a pure search for other indicated in the fusion of gender in these plays, demonstrated in characters Hamm, Clov, woman’s mouth, and Krapp.
۱٫۵ Literature Review
As previous chapters have revealed, this research concerns a Deleuzean study of Samuel Becket’s three plays, Not I, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Endgame in which the researcher aims to enhance the readers’ horizons of understanding on different aspects of such controversial plays under the light of Deleuze’s post-structural, post-Freudian tenets. Therefore, to analyze Becket’s innovative representation of human mind and body in his unique, poignant style of writing, first Deleuze’s main manifesto about becoming in his book Capitalism and Schizophrenia. In this book, Deleuze declares his revolutionary statements concerning the urgent necessity of bringing human into text by writing about other things as sources of producing aesthetics form which they have been driven away for ages. Moreover, he urges human being kept in the margins of capitalist society to return from beyond to their selves, to invent a unique type of writing to liberate themselves and to write about other things as the signifier of their unconscious. Moreover, he asserts that becoming has the face of Krapp who needs such a subversive language that breaks all norms, code, classes, and regulations sweeping away syntax and laws o language to express his loneliness, his emptiness, and his interest for other (496-741). The researcher studies these notions to see the grandeur of their practicality in Becket’s three chosen plays. As mentioned, Becket’s sharp, short and fragmentary style of writing in all his three works shares different aspects of Deleuze’s manifestations of becoming. Besides, the unique exotic characterization of his characters shares the same celebration of becoming functions with that of Deleuze when Hamm and Clov, or Krapp and woman’s mouth unusually fuse into one another to represent other things rather than humanity.
Another notion to be focused in this study, is the matter of different affects asserted in Deleuze’s article “The Future of Affects Studies”. Thus, the researcher studies this article in addition to the previous one to get deeper to the core of Deleuze’s deconstructive ideas about becoming and affect that challenge Western, capitalist’s views on human being associated with passivity, death (454-61). Influenced by Derrida, he also opposes those privileged hierarchies that simply solve the question of differences in which the human’s place is always at the above (457). The researcher needs to concentrate on this article, to observe Deleuze’s depiction of humans in their deconstructive act of threatening the stability of such a dominated structure creating such a revolutionary language that not only does not deny the differences but also celebrates the notion of them rather than I by loving the other in him self. In this respect, the researcher again goes back to Deleuze’s book where he warns these humans who follow them to bring them unfixed place on the capitalist systems (Deleuze I 473). By scrutinizing such notions in these two articles and book, now the researcher can magnify the horizons of meaning in Becket’s three mentioned plays as he has depicted characters and situations in parallel accordance with what Gilles Deleuze manifests; characters such as Krapp, Hamm, Clov and the woman’s mouth can be representatives of Becket’s version of Deleuze’s anti-human issue in their constant struggle in their process of becoming to express their bodies, to speak, to write and to get rid of torture and human world.
Another perfect source that can be mentioned here is Essays Critical and Clinical. Essays Critical and Clinical comprises eight newly revised articles that were originally published by Deleuze between 1970 and 1993 along with ten essays. The researcher mainly concentrates on three essays in this book that can lead her to know what language means by Deleuze.
Furthermore, the researcher may not directly refer to such studies in her analysis of Beckett’s three plays; however, she should have a whole dominance over the analytical area she wishes to apply Deleuze’s criticism to Samuel Beckett’s Endgame, Krapp’s Last tape, and Not I. Therefore, the researcher mainly concentrates on Habib’s A History of Literary Criticism as well as Bressler’s Literary Criticism position in the historical development of humanity to the present day, and his influences and common features shared with others critics of different fields of criticism.
۱٫۸ Definition of Key Terms
Affect: Affect is the change, or variation, that occurs when bodies collide, or come into contact. As a body, affect is the transitional product of an encounter, specific in its ethical and lived dimensions and yet it is also as indefinite as the experience of a sunset, transformation, or ghost. In its largest sense, affect is part of the Deleuzean project of trying- to understand, and comprehend, and express all of the incredible, wondrous, tragic, painful, and destructive configurations of things and bodies as temporally mediated, continuous events. Deleuze uses the term ‘affection’ to refer to the additive processes, forces, powers, and expressions of change the mix of affects that produce a modification or transformation in the affected body (Deleuze 11).
Becoming: Becoming is most often conceived by deducing the differences between a start- point and end- point. On Deleuze’s account, this approach means fi rst subtracting movement from the field of action or thinking in which the states are conceived, and then somehow reintroducing it as the means by which another static state has ‘become’. For Deleuze, this approach is an abstract exercise that detracts from the richness of our experiences. For him, becoming is neither merely an attribute of, nor an intermediary between events, but a characteristic of the very production of events. It is not that the time of change exists between one event and another, but that every event is but a unique instant of production in a continual flow of changes evident in the cosmos. The only thing ‘shared’ by events is their having become differ
ent in the course of their production (Deleuze 26).
Concept: For Deleuze and Guattari, concepts ought to be means by which we move beyond what we experience so that we can think of new possibilities. Rather than bringing things together under a concept, he is interested in relating variables according to new concepts so as to create productive connections. Concepts ought to express states of affairs in terms of the contingent circumstances and dynamics that lead to and follow from them, so that each concept is related to particular variables that change or ‘mutate’ it. A concept is created or thought anew in relation to every particular event, insight, experience or problem, thereby incorporating a notion of the contingency of the circumstances of each event. On such a view, concepts cannot be thought apart from the circumstances of their production, and so cannot be hypothetical or conceived a priori ( Deleuze 53).
Death: Death is many things: a state of affairs, when a body’s parts, through external causes, enter into a relation that is incompatible with that body’s continued existence; an impersonal event of dying, expressed through an infinitive verb (mourir, to die); the experience of zero ‘intensity’ that is implicit in a body’s feeling or experience of an increase or decrease in its force of existence; a ‘model’ of immobility and of energy that is not organized and put to work; and finally, the ‘death instinct’, capitalism’s destruction of surplus value through war, unemployment, famine and disease (Deleuze 64).
Lines of Flight: Throughout A Thousand Plateaus, Deleuze and Guattari develop a vocabulary that emphasises how things connect rather than how they ‘are’, and tendencies that could evolve in creative mutations rather than a ‘reality’ that is an inversion of the past. He and Guattari prefer to consider things not as substances, but as assemblages or multiplicities, focusing on things in terms of unfolding forces – bodies]]>