پایان نامه ارشد رایگان درمورد a، by، one، this

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<![CDATA[ (reading from dictionary). State–or condition of being–or remaining–a widow–or widower. (Looks up. Puzzled.) Being–or remaining? . . . (Pause. He peers again at dictionary. Reading.) "Deep weeds of viduity" . . . Also of an animal, especially a bird . . . the vidua or weaver bird . . . Black plumage of male . . . (He looks up. With relish.) The vidua0bird! (67).
The division of tape is ironically juxtaposed with a flow of desire that is a prerequisite for making a body without organs. In fact, division of the tapes in different ages can represent with division of identity. The fullness with which organs are imbued makes him feel he has too much of them; consequently, he undoes organs and enters the hazard of the BWO. The dividing up of tape appears to mean the tearing up of man whose subject position is. The schizo program ignites the motor of experimentation by which the desubjectification process begins functioning; destroy man, destroy organ, and destroys structure. Once logos which has so far been occupied by Krapp- writer, literary text, center- dramatically gives way to nomos- “the space where nothing pertains to anybody” (Difference and Repetition 46). Thus, the dividing up the tape, seems to be emptying the man who is drawn to nothingness. Emptied by nothing that is echoed in silence, the fabrication of BWO starts. He is coming to the world of BWO through drinking alcohol and eating banana too much, he is trying to escape from organs in order to come to the world of freedom.
The ego-oriented subject _Deleuze claims_ that has been rampant so far is broken to fragments and move incessantly in variety of directions aiming at production of effects(ibid 477). In Krapp’s obsession with tapes and its following disappointment, one may argue that, he has a void journey to other things. Krapp dismantles his body from organs so as to desubjectify his ego. Although he has constipation, he is eating too much bananas that can indicate that he is the crap of the society because he couldn’t be successful as a writer and also he was a kind of loser in his personal life as a lover. As a matter of fact, his body is kind of deformed; he can’t do any personal activities easily so one can read that inside and outside of Krapp are both ruined and this is the way that he is freeing himself from body.
To make one a BWO doesn’t mean to kill oneself, rather the act of dismantling of organs must make one enter new connections that are impossible insofar as organism is operative. The passages connections, intensities and levels are made possible once body is free from limitive power of organs. Free from organs can be seen in every part of Krapp. He is not organized at all as a human; his disorganized body can show his freedom from body’s limitation in order to pave a way for becoming tape and voice and coming to the line of flight of organs. The initial space Krapp inhabits- 29 years old- is the zone of center and constrained by ideology and hope. This is striated space in which there are center and kind of order but by passing the time in age of 39 and following 69, he is going to be fragmented and nomad and he comes to the smooth space in which there is all freedom and no limitation anymore, there is no center and here everything is decentralized.
The passage from the state of everything to nothing can be translated to Deleuzean transformation from striated space to smooth, nomadic space. One can see in this play that Krapp in the age of 29 is in striated space; however, in the age of 39 and 69 he comes to the smooth space in which he is going through nothingness and he is becoming nomad who belongs to nothing. The exchange of nothingness between different ages in the tapes allows us to come to the realization of the degree zero into which Krapp is increasingly sinking through aging.

۲٫۵ Krapp and Smooth Space

There are two spaces that can be considered here. First, one must note the major difference between striated space and smooth space. While the former is the space directed to a point, the latter is the space of line. It is marked by a smooth directional movement where the point is between lines, it is point-oriented, it is a moving limited between two points on one single line. However, the nomad space finds freedom, it can go everywhere and it can flow through any part. The nomadic BWO is the very perverse. It is perverse as it is ruled by hesitation “this paw that is neither left nor right, this differentiation that is never suppressing the undifferentiated which is divided in it” (The Logic of Sense 281).
Striated space has regular pattern, order, and law. Therefore, its “vertical being” (A Thousand Plateaus 43), top to bottom indicates hierarchy. This vertical arrangement represents a limiting force with its centered space of order and disciplinary. On the other hand, the nomadic space seems to be ‘free action’. Deleuze turns to abolition of ego, to live as a flow and singularity. Unity and identity are useless and he sets forth the concept of becoming and immense of desire. Furthermore, unlike the striated space in which one goes from one definite point to the equally other definite points (which means teleological, linear direction) the nomad space privileges lines over points.
This vacillation between the smooth and striated space is of importance in Deleuzean thinking as he asserts that the two exist in mixture, one is always traversed into the other, the smooth doesn’t remain smooth forever, it constantly returns to the striated as the striated reverses to the smooth. This can read as the care of a nomad state, which is shown in Krapp who doesn’t belong to anywhere. Krapp intensities that flow in excess of desire, the desire that negates wholeness, in search of division in tapes. He divides his identity through different tapes so from the beginning we can see the division of identity in nomad state. As we can see there is no central theme in this play, the space of patchwork is a free space that follows its own particular values totally different from the unified, harmonious pattern. The place that Krapp lives in is like a cage not a house or room. It’s dark, empty and gloomy and this cage is the version of the nomad space, wherein the body of nomad is indexed to the cage not a normal place. It’s body that moves in the intensities of cage
A late evening in the future. Krapp’s den. Front centre a small table, the two drawers of which open towards audience. Sitting at the table, facing front, i.e. across from the drawers, a wearish old man: Krapp” Krapp himself calls his room “den” which is supposed to represent his nomad state. The convergence of the outside and nomad results in the destruction of subject and no trace of his deserted identity “I”. He is trying to back to his own identity when he says “With all this darkness around me I feel less alone. (Pause.) In a way. (Pause.) I love to get up and move about in it, then back here to . . . (hesitates) . . . me. (pause.) (69)
Krapp but that is the useless journey for nomad state that belongs to nothing.
The desire in striated space and nomadic space represents differently. Although the former takes desire in oedipal form, the latter takes desire in anti-oedipal and apersonal form. This depersonalized form of desire moves against the familiar direction of the differentiated, meaning-centered and familial Freudian Oedipality which Deleuze and Guattari call “sick desire” (Anti-Oedipus 334). The sickness of this desire is its very oedipality in their views, when desire is captured and patterned by a social machine. This limiting act practiced on desire brings it under severe discipline in a way that the circulation of its energetic forces is channeled toward a striated, socially accepted direction. The oedipal is the acknowledgment of man, who is the subject, the model point of being. Deleuze tries to negate the terrain of origin, self and identity in order to flow and pass through other than man. He also calls for an anti-oedipal revo
lution that aims at freeing desire from capitalist axiomatic. Capitalist society pushes personal motivation to be free but by its rules and legislations. On the other hand, Deleuze’s anti-oedipal trajectory is releasing desire from Freudian frets of the familial incestuous origin. The ego psychology functions like a totalitarian ideology that seeks stability and for this it needs to order things, to impose organization to bring about homogeneity. The prime task is thus to kill the circulation of desire as it is proven to be the enemy organization.
The process of schizophrenizing is a pivotal course BWO undertakes. Everything that is related to Oedipus is supposed to be under the domain of social and political rules while the process of schizophren known as the plane of personal “schizo analysis is the negative of Capitalist formation… destroy, destroy Oedipus, the illusion of the ego, a complete curettage” (Anti- Oedipus 311). This process can be seen in Krapp’s life when he does belong to nowhere.

Chapter Three

۳٫۱ Not I and Nonsignifying Language
Rene Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement “Cogito ergo sum” (French: Je pense, donc je suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but with inclusion of “Cogito ergo sum”). René Descartes coined his famous contention: “I think, therefore I am [je pense, donc je suis; ego cogito, ergo sum]”. Embodied in Descartes’ assertion is the notion that thought alone can constitute the presence of subjectivity and indeed, he claims that:]]>

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